History of journalism
0⁹Important development in the history of indian press.Newspapers have always been the primary medium of journalists since 1700, with magazines added in the 18th century, radio on television in the 20th century, Hindi internet in the 21st century.
By 1400 businessmen in Italian and German cities were compiling handwritten chronicles of important news events and circulating them to their business connections.
The idea of using a printing press for this material first appeared in Germany around 1600.
In the following decades the national governments in Paris and London began printing official newsletters.
The birth of journalism in India
Ancient journalism maharshi Narad can be considered fore father of journalist.he used to convey message from one lok to another lok and also provided the news what the people want. In Mahabharat Sanjay worked as a TV reporter as he described the whole incident to the dhrishtra.
Printing press and newspaper are a supplement to each other. The printing art first came into existence in China than Germany and then came to india.
Important development in the history of Indian press before and after independence
The first newspaper in India was published by James Hickey in January 1780. It was called the Bengal gazette and announced itself as a weekly political and commercial paper open to all parties but influenced by none .
The first newspaper under Indian administration appeared in 1816. It was also called Bengal gazette and was published by Gangadhar Bhattacharjee . it was liberal paper which advocated the reform of Raja Ram Mohan Roy.
By 1905 the English and vernacular Press had become pretty professional. political leaders and social reformers regularly contributed to the newspaper ; some prominent writers of the time were CY Chintamani,GA Natesan ,NC Kelkar.
1920 and 1930
- Newspapers in this period started reflecting popular political opinions. While big English dailies were loyal to the British government the vernacular Press was strongly nationalist.
- The leader and Bombay chronicle were pro Congress.
- In 1918 Motilal Nehru started the independent of Lucknow as a newspaper of extreme Indian opinion.
- The home rule party started young India which later became Mahatma Gandhi’s mouthpiece. As more and more Indian started learning English many became reporters and editors and even owners .The Anglo Indian press began to lose ground expect in Bombay in Calcutta.
- In 1927 industrialist GD Birla took over Hindustan times, and placed it on a sound financial footing. In the same year as S Sadanand started the free press journal, a newspaper for the poor and the middle class in Mumbai.The golden era of Indian mission journalism(1920-1947).
- Declaration of non cooperation movement against the British rule in India.
- Mahatma Gandhi lauded for freedom of expression, ideas and peoples sentiments.
- Gandhi would not accept advertisements he believed newspapers should survive on the revenue from subscribers.
Many press publications and journalists including Nehru were suspended and arrested In 1942 it continued until the declaration of independence in 1947 August.
In 1947 India received independence from British rule on August 15th.
The press celebrated the independence because it was a victory too.
- At The beginning of independence the relation between the national government and press was good but a year after situation was changed.
- PM Nehru, Sardar Vallabh bhai Patel etc were not happy with the press.
- Then press commission comes in 1952
- later Press council act, press registrar minimum basic salary for working journalist strengthen the role of the editor.
- 1955 the working journalist act come for wages of journalists.
- Then Press council established in 1965
- In 1975 P.M Indira Gandhi declared a state of emergency in June.
- It was a shocking blow to the freedom of press , ignoring the press freedom granted by article 19( 1) in constitution ,heavy censorship during emergency period under defence rule in order to maintain public orders.
- 1975 ordinance banned the publication of all ‘objectionable matter’ no permission to report parliament and closed down Press council blaming it was their fault for curbing provocative writing.
- During the 19th months of emergency 253 journalists were detained and 7 foreign and correspondence expelled.
- When Janata Dal come into power,all the restrictions over Press were removed.
After the emergency Indian press became more professional along with Hi-Tech,simultaneous publication increased,tremendously change in the content, more supplements
booming of specialised magazines.